HANA Calculation Engine Functions (or CE Functions) are a mechanism introduced in HANA SPS02, which allow direct access to the HANA Column Store. They allow extremely precise control over how precise columns are projected, calculated and aggregated. In fact, they are a direct representation of how the original HANA Column Store modeled vector functions.
The fact that the use of grinding compound will not secure effective results in a valve reseating operation has been accepted for a number of years by the authorities in the industry. It is possible, through the use of compound, to effect a joint between the valve and the valve seat when the engine is cold, but as soon as the valve becomes heated from the natural heat of the engine, the portion that has been ground with compound will not contact the seat due to expansion of the metal. Here is the reason why.- A valve head 2" in diameter heated to 1450° (the normal temperature of an exhaust valve in operation), will expand .016", or .008" from each side of center. This means the valve will rise on the seat. The illustration below shows a valve and seat "ground in" with compound. When the engine is cold the valve and seat apparently form complete contact; but when the valve is heated and has raised, the portion ground in with compound is actually not in contact with the seat at all, and it is impossible for it ever to be when the engine is functioning. Through the use of the Kwik-Way Tapered Arbor for aligning a valve reseating operation, a compression-tight joint may be secured between the valve and the valve seat and this joint will be effective whether the valve is hot or cold. The use of compound on a valve so realigned would really prove detrimental.
Unlike earlier onboard diagnostic systems that set a diagnostic trouble code only when a sensor failed or read out of range, OBD II monitors most engine functions while the vehicle is being driven. It is designed to detect almost any problem that can cause emissions to exceed the federal limit by 1.5 times.
Learning how a car engine functions may seem like a difficult task, but it’s actually quite simple to grasp the basic functions of a standard engine. And we’ve found a great infographic that will help you do just that.